Sunday, February 23, 2020

Educational Theory and Sustainable Education Essay

Educational Theory and Sustainable Education - Essay Example Sustainability problem was first highlighted by the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987 (the Brundtland Commission). In 1992 the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janiero popularised this term. The emphasis was placed on the integration of thinking and action around ecological, social, political and economic systems. (Educating for a Sustainable Future, 2005) There are two currents which explain the interest in sustainability in the developed world. The first is the economisation of society or ‘finding economic values or indicators for economic and social phenomena.’ The second concerns a revaluation of nature, its transformation into a thing to be managed and controlled. These two currents are represented in ‘sustainable development’ term which exhibits a human desire to dominate over nature and a contradicting, ultimate dependence on its resources. There are many interpretations of sustainability which r equire critical assessment as they serve different social and economic interests. One group focuses on â€Å"sustainable economic growth†, the other – on â€Å"sustainable human development†. The first group does not support the idea of transformation of current social or economic systems while the second calls for a departure from current systems. Education was viewed as the â€Å"greatest resource† to achieve ecological society. Many major international reports see education as a source for sustainable living.

Friday, February 7, 2020

Vietnam and Philippines Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Vietnam and Philippines - Essay Example While the political elites in the country may not have wished to share their authority and command with other leaders and the populace, this situation was necessitated by the states experience of near starvation in the 80s - a situation that demanded that the political leadership open up to other interest groups for the country’s survival. Philippines on the other hand has a weak state that is characterized by weak social institutions and personalistic presidential politics. The national and central government has massive control over the public and private sectors with power entrenched in oligarchs, their families, and their cronies. Generally, the centralization of government in Philippines has led the country to be less competitive as oligarchs and clans retain control over resources. Even though electoral democracy exists in the Philippines, the country continues to witness systemic corruption and limited economic growth compared to Vietnam which has an authoritarian government. This is the case with the Philippines considering that the social institutions and government bodies that are charged with the responsibility of fighting corruption and putting the government on check are dominated by different clans and oligarchs who are keen on protecting their interests as opposed to performing their duties. The power that the oligarchs, their families, and their cronies wield together with the personalistic politics that characterize the country have seen corruption thrive in the Philippines. This is not the case in Vietnam where the government is decentralized, political leaders have responsibility to their constituents, and provinces have the power to control what is done at the state

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

The Us-Versus-Them Mentality In 2008’s Presidential Campaign Essay Example for Free

The Us-Versus-Them Mentality In 2008’s Presidential Campaign Essay The graphic novel, Maus, by Art Spiegelman, tells the story of a Polish Jew’s memories of his experience during the Holocaust. Drawn as mice, the Jews have faced a variety of psychological warfare, including xenophobia, scapegoating, dehumanization, and us-vs. -them dichotomy where the terrible events of the Holocaust were justified. The Holocaust was one of the most terrible events in human history, and decades later, scholars from many branches of academia still strive to understand such a dark historical event. Unfortunately, aspects leading up to the Holocaust still exist in the world today. While few current issues compare in magnitude to that of the Holocaust, such activities such as xenophobia, scapegoating, dehumanization, and divisive, dichotomous thought pervade populations everywhere. Although such negative sentiments always threaten negative results, in the US in the year 2008, one major historical movement and event occurred that promises a possible relief from such a divisive past. This historic movement and event is Barack Obama’s campaign, in which an African American ran for President of the United States and was the victor, becoming the first ever African American president of the country. But the campaign was not free of strife. This paper argues that while dichotomous, â€Å"us vs. them† elements in the year 2008’s presidential campaign were not systematically acted out as they were in the Holocaust, there existed similar instances of that mentality during the campaign timeframe. In the past decade, partisanship has set two major groups of Americans at odds with each other in the form of Democrat vs. Republicans. However, this past presidential campaign, or even in the past decade, the fever pitch of â€Å"us vs. them† has not escaped many people, and â€Å"Democrat† or â€Å"Republican† began to be expressed in layers of differences. Chuck Raasch of USAToday reports that: Americans fought a terrible civil war on all three fronts. A century later, Northerners saw Southerners as oppressors during struggles over civil rights, and Southerners viewed Northerners as meddlers. Even the Inside the Beltway label continues a deeply rooted, us-versus-them mentality of the nations capital. Despite the elevation of a black man and a white woman to the Democratic and Republican presidential tickets, respectively, the election of 2008 has played often to those divides. In her article Unleashed, Palin Makes a Pit Bull Look Tame, Dana Milbank of the Washington Post describes the crowd’s response, [who were] â€Å"waving thunder sticks and shouting abuse. Others hurled obscenities at a camera crew. One Palin supporter shouted a racial epithet at an African American sound man for a network and told him, Sit down, boy (p. A03). † While divisive expressions such as these seem far away from the Holocaust, one must consider Peter Suedfeld’s words regarding the genesis of anti-Semitism in the time before the Holocaust: Sherif et al. (1961/1988) demonstrated how leaders, by framing situations in terms of intergroup competition, can produce hostility and aggressive behaviour between component groups. We can see the workings of an ingrained us-vs-them mentality in experimental minimal groups (Tajfel et al. , 1971), which are composed in a completely arbitrary way and whose members never even meet each other (3). This explanation could very well describe the actions of leaders in political parties as well as group behaviors in response to leaders. Sarah Palin could be seen to â€Å"frame situations† such that â€Å"intergroup competition† occurs, as it does in the Republican furor over the Democrate presidential candidate. Partisanship was not the only exhibition of us-versus-them behavior during the past year. Dedication to one’s country came into question in which the concepts of American versus anti-American were introduced. According to Bob Lonsberry in his article â€Å"What’s Wrong With a Marxist? †, a person who is American is one who sees two irreconcilable extremes between Karl Marx and John Locke, and if a person takes into regard the writings of Karl Marx, then he or she is â€Å"anti-American. † If an American is to be truly American, they must adopt similar ways of thinking in which Marxism, communist, and other similar ontological principles must be absolutely shunned because they repudiate everything America stands for. These sentiments before the Holocaust were similar. In place of anti-Americans were the Jews. Andre Minaeu writes: To the Nazis, all things seriously afflicting Germany and the Aryan race were ultimately Jewish or Jewish-inspired. In this sense, the Jewish people were the quintessential enemy of Nazi totalitarianism. The latter elevated Jewry, so to speak, to the rank of an evil ontological principle against which struggle was to be universal (17). In this sense, anti-Americans are philosophically against everything Americans stand for and should be beaten politically, while Jews represented everything the Nazis stood for, which caused them to become an evil philosophical principle. No other dichotomy is more apparent in both Holocaust and the 2008 presidential campaign than ethnicity. The question of race—and one’s ethnicity—became a large factor due to the mixed-race heritage of Barack Obama. Historically, part of Obama’s ethnicity had been under the awful yoke of slavery and then the struggle of civil rights. One can see this in the words of Martin Luther King, Jr: I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama†¦ little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers (60). The question of Jewsishness—both an ethnicity as well as a belief system—was subject of life and death for six million people during World War II. Historically, Jews have also been slaves, and their ethnicity and religion have played a large role in their struggles in past centuries. Paul Johnson explains this in his book The History of the Jews by quoting Dietrich Bonhoeffer, an ex-prisoner of the Nazis: We have learned to see the great events of world history from below, from the perspective of those who are excluded, under suspicion, ill-treated, powerless, oppressed, and scorned, in short those who suffer (2). It is not a subtle expression in either of these two statements that the writers and speakers felt that their world was divided in groups, and they were the â€Å"them† in the phrase â€Å"us-versus-them. † While the us-versus-them mentality might seem as if it would haunt human interaction for all time, there have always been historical figures who have sought to overcome the divisiveness by seeking common ground. Perhaps the most famous of those is Abraham Lincoln, who spoke these words: A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved I do not expect the house to fall but I do expect it will cease to be divided (Lincoln). Martin Luther King, Jr. is another figure who sought to overcome injustice and inequality through nonviolent means. Current scholars are improving and applying techniques for nonviolent conflict resolution (Suedfeld 2006, p. 7). In regards to the Holocaust, there are many studies about the tragedy in many areas of study, from psychology to politics to sociology, as evidenced by the books The Making of the Holocaust: Ideology and Ethics in the Systems Perspective by Andre Mineau and Canadian Psychology addressing Holocaust reverberations fifty years later. Lastly, the end of the 2008 campaign year drew to a close, and Barack Obama has been elected President. While he emerged from one of the two major political parties in the US, his own sentiments in his book The Audacity of Hope strive for a bipartisan rather than a divided approach: Maybe there’s no escaping our great political divide, an endless clash of armies, and any attempts to alter the rules of engagement are futile. Or maybe the trivialization of politics has reached a point of no return, so that most people see it as just one more diversion, a sport†¦ We paint our faces red or blue and cheer our side and boo their side†¦ But I don’t think so. They are out there†¦ those ordinary citizens who have grown up in the midst of all the political and cultural battles, but who have found a way†¦ to make peace with their neighbors, and themselves (pp. 50-51). Violence stemmed from rabid divisiveness is what made the Holocaust so terrible. Therefore, any attempts to heal the us-versus-them mentality would have to be the opposite: peaceful actions that strive to bring humans together. Fortunately, if one could take lessons from Mahatma Ghandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., Abraham Lincoln, and Barack Obama, then the possibility that discordant sentiments in the human populace may never take seed. WORKS CITED Johnson, Paul. A History of the Jews. HarperPerennial (1988). King, Jr. , Martin Luther. â€Å"The Dream†. Speech. Lincoln Memorial, Washington, DC. 28 August 1963. Lincoln, Abraham. House Divided Speech. Speech. Springfield, Illinois, June 16, 1858. Milbank, Dana. â€Å"Unleashed, Palin Makes a Pit Bull Look Tame. † Washington Post. October 7, 2008: A03. Minaeu, Andre. The Making of the Holocaust: Ideology and Ethics in the Systems Perspective. Amsterdam; Atlanta, Georgea: Rodopi, 1999.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

The Mathematical Aspects of Lewis Carrolls Alice in Wonderland Essay

The Mathematical Aspects of Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland The story Alice in Wonderland was written about a little girl named Alice who was a child of the dean of the Church of Christ. Alice Liddell was the one who convinced Charles Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) to write down the verbal story originally known as "Alice's Adventure Underground".Actually, the book is known by several different names, Alice's Hours in Elfand,Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, and Alice in Wonderland.I found it interesting that the Mid-Continent Public Library once listed the book under Lewis Carroll and has recently changed it to Charles L. Dodgson. If one looks on the side of the book, Carroll was actually crossed off and Dodgson written over(Lewis Carroll Biography, The Victorian Web). As I began reading the book Alice in Wonderland, it was very obvious that Lewis Carroll was a logical mathematician.The contemporary math class that I am currently taking has opened a new level of understanding for myself; if I had read the book anytime prior it would have read simply as an unusual child's fairytale.I find it interesting that the book Alice in Wonderland follows the first couple sections of our contemporary math book.I actually see the mathematics behind the story.I never knew that math could be turned into a fairytale(Johnson/Mowry 46-47). The book begins with Alice and her sister sitting by the bank as Alice grows tired.Alice believes she sees a white rabbit running by and decides to run after it.The rabbit jumps into a hole and Alice follows.I believe Lewis Carroll was a very intelligent man and like to state his complex ideas through the use of Alice: "for you see Alice had learned several things of this sort in her lessons in the sch... ...ting effect(Weber,Food ,Drink,and Public Health in the Alice Books). Works Cited Carroll,L.(1952). Alice in Wonderland.Philadelphia Toronto:The John C. Winston Company. Johnson,D.,& Mowry,T.(1988).Mathematics,A Practical Odyssey (3rd ed.). California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Connell, Kate. Opium as a Possible Influence upon the Alice Books: December 1993. Brown University/Victorian Web. July 17,2000 <http://landow.stg.brown.ed/victorian/carroll/aiw14.html. Lewis Carroll: Biography: December 1992. Brown University/Victorian Web. July 17,2000<http//llandow.stg.brown.ed/victorian/carroll/dreamchild/creamchild2.html.> Weber,Anya.Food,Drink,andPublic Health in the Alice Books: December 1995. Brown University/Victorian Web.July18,2000 <http://landow.stg.brown.ed/Victorian/Carroll/weber.html.> Reflection - Alice in Wonderland

Monday, January 13, 2020


Epigraph was ironically taken from a diet book by Deborah Waterholes which explains the chocolate is a requirement for women! Lexical (word choice) Throughout the text, the author has used a large selection of sensory words which has been used for effect to describe the food. Examples of these sensory words would be words such as â€Å"Mouth-watering' and â€Å"Cinnamon- flavored†. It has been done to create a more effective Genre response from the reader and also to make the simple foods it speaks about seem more luxurious.By using verbs such as â€Å"divine† is creates a more luxurious atmosphere around it and makes it seem much more opulent. The use of the word Glory is very efficacious as it is repeated in the title to make it seem like the chocolate which is being spoken about is so glorious. Which then follows n to the oxymoron in the title Naughty But Nice. Presentational The presentational features all makes it looks like a longer poem then it is because of how spread out it is. It usually has three lines in each stanza which means that it is short.In the first consentingly Glory Be to Chocolate, the words have been printed in italics to symbolism the difference in the poem. Link In the exam I would link text 6 to text 5 because they both discuss in depth the exploration of cross culture and the experiences that could be shared. In text 6 it suggests that he wants his audience to feel as appreciative towards coco beans the way he does as view they re importance just the same. Likewise, in text 5, James Berry is exploring the way in which the Caribbean culture has adapted into the life into London.Attitudes and values The attitudes in this piece towards food are really positive as they think very highly of this food. It is very positive towards not only chocolate but it strongly supports the idea of cross culture and the love of luxurious food. It thinks that people should value food in w way which most people over look, meaning that more people are taking food for granted. Contextual detail This is an extract from the English â€Å"Food Hygiene Regulation 2006† which was put into place to solidify the safety and all laws for all business operators and suppliers e. . Shops, restaurants and etc. In England. These notices were put into place for all establishments to abide by to ensure the safety and protection for all those who use the services. It is the job of the Government to guarantee the safety of the people who are using the services it provides. Extract from Food Hygiene (England Regulations) 2006 This text is an extract from regulations that are set by the government to ensure the requirements are met by all establishments to achieve safety specifically for food.Audience Every company of business who provides a service that sells food egg restaurant, shop, school. This also applies to people who have to enforce these rules upon these types of places. Purpose The point of this text is to have an underst anding of all food being safe for all consumers. It is to inform the audience Of the regulations that the text is enforcing. It is to ensure that all establishments that supply any sort of food or beverage are safe and good enough for consumption. They are to guide ND lead companies into the correct manor and leadership.Because of the nature of text 15, it has many small sections which are labeled by subtitles and then divided by numbers and further subdivided by letters. Each of letters has its own topic and that is why it is separated and labeled. Likewise it has been done this way to make it seem a lot easier to read. Each one of the paragraphs is very short and they all flow from one to the other. It has been laid out this way so that it is easy for the audience to read. It makes it clear and it also makes it visually simple. Additionally, there re that many subjects that it is required for there to be so many paragraphs.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

The Salem Witches Real or Imagined - 1289 Words

The Salem Witches: Real or Imagined? The Salem Witch Trials began because of a mysterious illness contracted by 11-year old Abigail Williams and her cousin Betty Paris (Burgan). Instead of looking for a logical explanation, the community immediately jumped to the conclusion that witches caused the girls curious behavior. Doctors commonly would diagnose an unknown illness as witchcraft, rather than looking for other explanations (Wolfinger). Erot of Rye, which causes severe contortions and hallucinations, could have caused their strange behavior (Burgan). Abigail and Betty also could have faked their bewitchment to receive attention or avoid work. The Salem Witch Trials took place based accusations, rather than solid evidence. Though frowned upon by many in modern society, people considered witchcraft a terrible crime, punishable by death during this period in time. Many scholars in Salem believed that witches actually signed away their soul to the devil in return for earthly favors and special powders ( Tituba, an accused slave girl acknowledged this belief, and confessed to have written her name in blood within the devil’s book. She only evaded execution because she saw others also writing their names in the devil’s book. With Tituba still alive, she could identify other potential witches. Soon after the â€Å"bewitched† girls accused the first witch, Tituba, many more followed. Among the suspected withes, Rebecca Nurse and Giles Correy held strong to theirShow MoreRelatedSocial Criticism in Arthur Millers The Crucible1003 Words   |  4 PagesSocial Criticism in Arthur Millers The Crucible The Crucible, a play written by Arthur Miller, is a chronological narrative including a large cast of characters with a constantly moving setting.* The Crucible is a dramatization of the Salem Witch Trials of 1692 and an allegory of the McCarthyism period. Throughout the play, Miller explores the destruction of freedom by the ignorant and tyrannical society in which his characters live.* By exhibiting how easily a member of the community can becomeRead MoreSix Women Of Salem Book Review1124 Words   |  5 PagesYasmin Valdez 11/23/15 History 1302 Book Review â€Å"Six Women of Salem† Book Review, By Marilyne K. Roach Marilynne K. Roach is a resident of Watertown, Massachusetts. She went on to graduate with a BFA from MCA (Massachusetts College of Art) but she uniquely gives credit to the public library systems for the rest of her education. This is very interesting to me because she says that libraries are what she owes to her education to. 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During the Trials, an absurd amount of women, men, and even dogs were accused of being possessed by the Devil, thus making them perform witchcraft or wizardry on both townspeople and the townspeople’s valuablesRea d MoreHow Does Fear and Hysteria Play a Significant Role in Creating and Driving the Conflict and the Chaotic Events That Take Place in Arthur Millers the Crucible?1450 Words   |  6 Pagesthe threat is real or imagined.1 It causes feelings of dread and apprehension. Fear can lead to hysteria- a condition where community wide fear overwhelms logic and ends up justifying its own existence. In Arthur Miller’s The Crucible, fear and hysteria are the foundation and antecedent behind the bedlam and conflicting events that take place in the community of Salem. It is the key factor that results in the degeneration of the community. It is fear and hysteria that incited the Salem Witch TrialsRead MoreHawthorne s Young Goodman Brown899 Words   |  4 PagesGoodman Brown,† he explores the downfall of the spirit of Goodman Brown and destroys the innocence and predestination of the title character by taking him down the metaphorical road to Hell. 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Millers concerns with conscience, guilt and justice develop into significant and thought-provoking themes throughoutRead MoreEssay The Salem Witchcraft Trials of 16924260 Words   |  18 PagesThe Salem Witchcraft Trials of 1692 The Salem witchcraft trials of 1692, which resulted in 19 executions, and 150 accusations of witchcraft, are one of the historical events almost everyone has heard of. They began when three young girls, Betty Parris, Abigail Williams and Ann Putnam began to have hysterical fits, after being discovered engaging in forbidden fortune-telling (not dancing naked in the woods) to learn what sorts of men they would marry. Bettys father, the Reverend Samuel ParrisRead MoreA Loss of Faith (Young Goodman Brown)1472 Words   |  6 Pagesunder his spell, saying â€Å"I have been as well acquainted with your family as with ever a one among the Puritans; and thats no trifle to say. I helped your grandfather, the constable, when he lashed the Quaker woman so smartly through the streets of Salem. And it was I that brought your father a pitch-pine knot, kindled at my own hearth, to set fire to an Indian village, in King Philips War. They were my good friends, both; and many a pleasant walk have we had along this path, and returned merrily

Friday, December 27, 2019

Impact Of Household Credit On Education - 953 Words

Doan, D., Gibson, J., Holmes, M. (2014). Impact of Household Credit on Education and Healthcare Spending by the Poor in Peri-Urban Areas, Vietnam. Journal of Southeast Asian Economies, 31(1), 87-103. The authors of this article are affiliated with the University of Waikato in New Zealand (The University of Waikato, n.d.). Tinh Doan was a PhD student at the university for three years, between 2007 and 2010, who studied the impact of microfinance on human capital formation (Doan, n.d.). In the past four years, he has published ten articles that relate to Vietnam and how their economy is influenced by a multitude of factors, including import competition, productivity spillover, and employee benefits (Doan, n.d.). The other two men, John†¦show more content†¦The article uses a statistical test, Propensity Score Matching (PSM), with a control group of 107 households, who does not receive any financial support, and a treatment group of 304 households, who receive financial support from any type of formal lender. The PSM matches the control group family to the treatment group family by identifying their similarities. In order to be matched, each family must have similar observa ble characteristics/factors which includes an income that falls below the poverty line of VND6 million (Doan et al., 2014). The most relevant aspect of this idea is that it shows the correlation between families who formal receive micro-credit and those who do not. The authors found that the families who received micro-credit spent about VND81,000-99,000 more on education and VND93,000 more on health care (Doan et al., 2014). There is evidence, at the 5 percent confidence level, which shows that the impact is significant. Therefore, families in peri-urban Vietnam, who receive a formal micro-credit loan, are more inclined to spend money on health care and education. I can use this to show that microcredit does alter how families spend their money. This article uses a quantitative method to show impact. Doan offers an example of a flaw in their method resulting from selection bias if the correlation between matched houses occurs due to the unobservable